Loyalty is the Faith of a City in its Leader. In Game-Speak, its the level that determines Capture. When It hits 0, it reverts to 25 under "New-Managment", AKA the new player. 'Every' time an attack hits a city that has a scholar in it, the loyalty drops a random amount between 20-30. Since the player has to drop it 100 points, it can take either 4 or 5 Scholar Waves to drop a city fully. Since it is common to attack a city that is far away, many players choose to attack it with 5 Waves, in order to gurrentee a capture.
If theoretically the loyalty drops to 0 With only the use of 4 Scholars (A 50% chance), the 5th will attempt to "re-capture" a city. Since loyalty Reverts to 25 when captured, the 5th scholar has a 50% chance to Recapture it (If he hits 20-24 the city is safe, otherwise he captures. Now, although it may not seem it, Recapturing is a large pain. Since any scholar that captures a city is consumed, In the "super capture" scenireo, you lose Two Scholars! However, the only time a super capture occures is if only 4 Scholars are used (50%) AND if the 5th hits 25 or more (50%), so there is only a 25% chance of a super-capture.